Eastern Suburbs Urology


The testes, also known as the testicles, are two oval-shaped organs located in the scrotum of males.

They are responsible for the production of testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and sperm, the male reproductive cells. The testicles are vital for fertility and the overall male reproductive system.

Common Testicles Conditions

  • Overview: Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord, which supplies blood to the testicle, becomes twisted, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage.
  • Cause: The exact cause is often unknown, but it can result from a congenital abnormality, trauma, or strenuous physical activity.
  • Symptoms: Sudden and severe testicular pain, swelling, nausea, vomiting.
  • Treatment: Emergency surgical intervention is required to untwist the spermatic cord and restore blood flow to the testicle.
  • Overview: Testicular trauma refers to any injury or damage to the testicles, typically caused by blunt force or direct impact.
  • Cause: Accidents, sports injuries, or physical assaults.
  • Symptoms: Testicular pain, swelling, bruising, nausea.
  • Treatment: Treatment depends on the severity of the trauma and may include rest, pain medication, application of cold compresses, and, in severe cases, surgery.
  • Overview: Testicular cancer is the development of abnormal cells in the testicles, usually originating from germ cells that produce sperm.
  • Cause: The exact cause is unknown, but risk factors include undescended testicles, family history, and genetic factors.
  • Symptoms: Painless testicular lump or swelling, testicular pain or discomfort, testicular heaviness, fluid accumulation in the scrotum.
  • Treatment: Treatment options depend on the type and stage of cancer and may include surgery (orchidectomy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection), radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy.
  • Overview: Orchitis is the inflammation of one or both testicles, often resulting from an infection.
  • Cause: Bacterial or viral infection, commonly mumps or sexually transmitted infections.
  • Symptoms: Testicular pain, swelling, redness, fever, flu-like symptoms.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics for bacterial orchitis, antiviral medication for viral orchitis, pain management, rest, and supportive measures.
  • Overview: Epididymitis is the inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube located behind each testicle that stores and transports sperm.
  • Cause: Bacterial infection, commonly from urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections.
  • Symptoms: Testicular pain, swelling, redness, tenderness, urinary symptoms, fever.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics to treat the underlying infection, pain management, rest, elevation of the scrotum, and supportive measures.
It is important to note that the information provided is a general overview, and specific cases may vary. If you have concerns about your testicle health or experience any symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment options.

Dr Richard Savdie


Dr Savdie is a highly-experienced Sydney-based urologist and uro-oncology surgeon specialising in minimally-invasive robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery.

He consults and operates at multiple leading private and public hospitals around the Eastern Suburbs.