Eastern Suburbs Urology


The bladder is a hollow organ located in the lower abdomen that stores urine produced by the kidneys until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra.

The bladder is lined with a muscular wall that contracts to expel urine during urination. Various conditions can affect the bladder and disrupt its normal functioning.

Common Bladder Conditions​

  • Overview: UTIs are bacterial infections that can affect the bladder and other parts of the urinary system.
  • Cause: Bacterial infection that enters the urinary tract.
  • Symptoms: Pain or burning during urination, frequent urination, urgency to urinate, cloudy or bloody urine, abdominal pain, fever.
  • Treatment: Antibiotics to eliminate the infection, drinking plenty of fluids, maintaining good hygiene, urinating frequently, and avoiding irritants (such as caffeine and alcohol).
  • Overview: OAB is a condition characterised by a sudden and frequent urge to urinate.
  • Cause: The exact cause is often unknown, but it can result from nerve damage, urinary tract infections, or bladder abnormalities.
  • Symptoms: Frequent urination, sudden strong urges to urinate (urgency), urge incontinence (leakage of urine), nocturia (frequent urination at night).
  • Treatment: Behavioural and lifestyle changes (e.g., bladder training, fluid management, pelvic floor exercises), medications to relax the bladder muscles, nerve stimulation techniques, Botox injections into the bladder, in rare cases, surgery.
  • Overview: Bladder stones are hard mineral and salt deposits that form in the bladder.
  • Cause: Concentrated minerals in the urine that crystallise and form stones in the bladder.
  • Symptoms: Lower abdominal pain, frequent urination, blood in the urine, difficulty urinating.
  • Treatment: Drinking plenty of fluids, medications to help dissolve the stones, surgical procedures (lithotripsy, cystolitholapaxy, or open surgery) to remove or break up larger stones.
  • Overview: Bladder cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the bladder lining.
  • Cause: Exact cause unknown, but smoking, exposure to certain chemicals, chronic bladder inflammation, and genetic factors are risk factors.
  • Symptoms: Blood in the urine (haematuria), frequent urination, pain during urination, back or pelvic pain.
  • Treatment: Treatment options depend on the stage and aggressiveness of the cancer. They may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy.
  • Overview: Bladder incontinence refers to the involuntary leakage of urine.
  • Cause: Weakening of the muscles and tissues that control bladder function, often due to age, pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, or neurological conditions.
  • Symptoms: Involuntary urine leakage, urgency to urinate, frequent urination.
  • Treatment: Behavioural and lifestyle modifications (e.g., bladder training, pelvic floor exercises), medications, medical devices (such as pessaries), minimally invasive procedures, or surgery in severe cases.
  • Overview: IC/BPS is a chronic condition characterised by bladder pain and urinary frequency.
  • Cause: The exact cause is unknown, but it may involve a combination of bladder lining abnormalities, inflammation, and nerve dysfunction.
  • Symptoms: Chronic pelvic pain, bladder pain or discomfort, frequent urination (often with small volumes), urgency to urinate.
  • Treatment: No cure, but treatment focuses on symptom management. It may include oral medications, bladder instillations, physical therapy, nerve stimulation techniques, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications.

It is important to note that the information provided is a general overview, and specific cases may vary. If you have concerns about your bladder health or experience any symptoms, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment options.

Dr Richard Savdie


Dr Savdie is a highly-experienced Sydney-based urologist and uro-oncology surgeon specialising in minimally-invasive robotic surgery and laparoscopic surgery.

He consults and operates at multiple leading private and public hospitals around the Eastern Suburbs.